Revealing Cupid: Restoration of Vermeer’s ‘Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window’ completed

26 August 2021

Das weltweit bekannte und verehrte Gemälde

After a full restoration, and for the first time in over two and a half centuries, Johannes Vermeer’s well-known and loved painting ‘Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window’ has been returned to its original condition when it left the artist’s studio. The famous work will be presented to the public as the focal point and highlight of the ‘Johannes Vermeer. On reflection’ exhibition starting on 10 September 2021 in the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister.

Das um 1657–1659 entstandene Bild w

The canvas, painted around 1657-1659, was acquired in Paris in 1742 for the collection of Saxon Prince Elector Friedrich Augustus II, and has been one of the principal works in Dresden’s Gemäldegalerie ever since. An X-ray taken of the painting in 1979 showed that there was a fully overpainted picture-within-a-picture of a nude Cupid that adorned the room’s rear wall in the background. Annaliese Mayer-Meintschel first published this fascinating finding in 1982, and it has been cited in many works on the subject. Since then, academics have assumed that Vermeer rejected the Cupid painting as he was unhappy with the composition, and painted over the room’s rear wall himself.

Mädchen steht am Fenster und liest einen Brief
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische

Ein Liebesgott taucht auf: Vermeers „Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster“ vollständig restauriert

During a restoration and research project that began in 2017 and was supported by a panel of international experts, the team made or re-evaluated X-rays, infrared reflectance spectroscopies and microscopies of the oil painting in the past few years. The backing canvas was also analysed in detail and research was conducted into the painting’s restoration history. Multiple colour samples were taken from Vermeer’s painting and the layers and consistency were analysed in Dresden Academy of Fine Arts’ Laboratory of Archaeometry (HfBK). These studies played a decisive role in reassessing the extensive overpainting of the Cupid figure in the ‘Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window.’ We can now safely state that it was not Vermeer himself who painted over the background, and that the retrospective change was applied at least several decades after the painting was made, and significantly after the artist’s death. A full-surface X-ray fluorescence scan of the painting, conducted with the support of the Rijksmuseum in 2017, confirmed our new findings on the overpainting.

Given the strong evidence that a third party had painted over the Cupid retroactively, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden (SKD), endorsed by the panel of experts, made the decision in early 2018 to remove the overpainted layer. Christoph Schölzel, a conservator at the SKD Paintings Conservation Workshop, took on overall responsibility for restoration of the painting.

Following completion of the restoration process in early 2021, the painting now has an entirely new look. A standing Cupid with a bow, arrows and two masks has been revealed in the background, enriching the room’s rear wall as a picture-within-a-picture. The figure is treading on the masks of pretence lying on the ground before him – a sign of sincere love overcoming deception and hypocrisy. The presence of Cupid in the composition is a meaningful ‘comment’ that adds greatly to the painting’s message.

Stephan Koja, Director of the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister und Skulpturensammlung bis 1800: “It is in ‘Girl Reading a Letter’ that Vermeer discovers his own, distinct style. It marks the beginning of a series of paintings in which individuals, generally women, pause during an activity to find a moment of calm, and to reflect. In this series, Vermeer examines fundamental existential questions, in particular in this piece: Restoring the Cupid in the background shows us the master from Delft’s true intention. Beyond the superficial romantic context, it makes a fundamental statement on the nature of true love. Until now, we could only see this as a fragment. Now we know what a key role it plays in his oeuvre.”

Uta Neidhardt, Head Conservator and Exhibition Curator: “The changed appearance of the ‘Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window’, including the overpainting removed at the borders of the canvas, gives us an opportunity to reconsider the painting’s composition and how it works visually. The borders appear curiously unfinished – perhaps Vermeer covered it with an actual wooden frame, which is why he left them in such an ‘open’ condition. If we assume that he had planned to use such a construction, we immediately recall the experimental works by church interior painters from Delft, with their trompe-l’oeil curtains, or Pieter de Hooch’s intricate interiors.”

The restored masterpiece will be shown in an historically-accurate ebony frame in the ‘Johannes Vermeer. On reflection’ exhibition (10 September 2021 until 2 January 2022).

The press conference for the exhibition opening and presentation of the fully restored painting will take place on 9 September 2021, at 11 am at the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister in the Semperbau am Zwinger (Semper Building at the Zwinger). To comply with the hygiene requirements, all participants must register for the press event by Monday, 6 September 2021, 11.59 pm at presse@skd.museum.

About the exhibition and the research project

Presspictures- and -dossiers

Mädchen steht am Fenster und liest einen Brief
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, um 1657-59 Zustand nach der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Johannes Vermeer, Bei der Kupplerin, 1656 Öl auf Leinwand, 143 x 130 cm
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Elke Estel, Hans-Peter Klut
Johannes Vermeer, Briefleserin in Blau, um 1663 Öl auf Leinwand, 46,5 x 39 cm
© Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, Foto: Carola van Wijk
Johannes Vermeer, Häuseransicht in Delft (Die kleine Straße), um 1658 Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
© Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Foto: Carola van Wijk
Johannes Vermeer, Die unterbrochene Musikstunde, 1660/61 The Frick Collection, New York City
© The Frick Collection, Foto: Michael Bodycomb
Johannes Vermeer, Frau mit der Waage, 1662-1665 Öl auf Leinwand, 39,7 x 35,5 cm
© Washington, National Gallery of Art, Widener Collection
Johannes Vermeer, Stehende Virginalspielerin, um 1670/72 Öl auf Leinwand, 51,7 x 45,2 cm
© The National Gallery, London
Johannes Vermeer, Das Mädchen mit dem Weinglas, um 1658 Öl auf Leinwand, 77,5 x 66,7 cm
© Braunschweig, Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Foto: Claus Cordes
Caspar Netscher, Der Briefschreiber, 1665 Öl auf Eichenholz, 27 x 18,5 cm
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Elke Estel
Daniel Vosmaer, Delft von einer imaginären Loggia aus, 1663 Öl auf Leinwand, 90,5 x 113 cm, Delft, Stedelijk Museum Het Prinsenhof
© Collection Museum Prinsenhof Delft, On loan from the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, Foto: Tom Haartsen
Gabriel Metsu, Selbstbildnis des Künstlers mit seiner Frau Isabella de Wolff im Wirtshaus, 1661 Öl auf Eichenholz, 35,5 x 30,5 cm
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Elke Estel, Hans-Peter Klut
Gerard Dou, Der Maler in seiner Werkstatt, 1647 Öl auf Eichenholz, 43,5 x 34,5 cm
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Elke Estel, Hans-Peter Klut
Gerard Houckgeest, Die Oude Kerk in Delft, 1654 Öl auf Holz, 49 x 41 cm, Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum
© Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Foto: Frans Pegt
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Vor der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Hans-Peter Klut, Elke Estel
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Während der Firnisabnahme
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Etappen der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Etappen der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Etappen der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Etappen der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Etappen der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, 1657-59 Etappen der Restaurierung
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Detail Restaurierung © Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Strahlendiagnostische Untersuchung
Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse an Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, um 1657–1659 © Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Maria Körber
Ungerahmtes Gemälde auf einer Staffelei in der Werkstatt
In der Werkstatt Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, um 1657–1659
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Jürgen Lange
Gemälde während der Firnisabnahme
Gemälde während der Firnisabnahme Johannes Vermeer, Brieflesendes Mädchen am offenen Fenster, um 1657–1659
© Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Wolfgang Kreische
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © SKD, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © SKD, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © SKD, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © SKD, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © SKD, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © SKD, Foto: Oliver Killig
Ausstellungsansicht "Johannes Vermeer. Vom Innehalten" © Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, Foto: Oliver Killig
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